Frequently Asked Questions
: Child Labor Law
- At what age can a minor child work?
Generally, 14 years of age.
- What are the primary requirements for minors who work?
- Minors must be 14 to work in most jobs.
- Minors 14 and 15:
- must have an employment certificate,
- have limited hours they can work, and
- cannot work in certain jobs.
- Minors 16 and 17 are barred from working in certain particularly hazardous jobs. Virginia Code § 40.1-100
- Does a minor child need an employment certificate prior to beginning work?
Yes, minors under the age of 16 must obtain an employment certificate prior to their first day of employment.
- Where can an employment certificate be obtained?
At most public middle schools and high schools and some private schools; ask for the Child Labor Work Permit Issuing Officer.
- What hours can a 14 or 15 year-old work?
- May not work more than 3 hours a day on a school day;
- May not work more than 18 hours a week in a school week;
- May not work more than 8 hours a day on a non-school day;
- May not work more than 40 hours a week in a non-school week;
- May not work before 7 a.m. or after 7 p.m., except between June 1st and Labor Day, they may work as late as 9 p.m.;
- May not work during school hours unless enrolled in a school work-training program;
- Must be given a 30-minute rest or meal period after 5 consecutive hours of work.
- Are minors prohibited from working in certain jobs?
Yes. Minors under 16 are prohibited from several occupations, which are considered unhealthy, unwholesome or dangerous. Minors aged 16 and 17 are barred from working in a shorter list of particularly hazardous occupations. For a list of these occupations, click here.
- Can civil monetary penalties be assessed against an employer?
Yes. A penalty of up to $10,000 may be assessed for any violation that results in the serious injury or death of a minor and a penalty of up to $1,000 may be assessed for other violations of the child labor laws. An employer may be fined for each minor who is employed if the Code's requirements are not met for each individual."
FAQs Child Labor Law- Page 2